**Bertrand Russell, The Analysis of Matter**

… as indicated yesterday, having finished the first chapter in the book, i am using what time i have through Saturday to review and/or deepen my understanding of concepts and definitions…

… i just finished a wikipedia entry discussing the philosophical definition of a “proposition”… i learn that in logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence… and that in philosophy, meaning is a non-linguistic entity shared by all sentences with the same meaning…why do we need logic?

… i move on to a definition and discussion of propositional calculus in Wikipedia, which has me jumping to a definition of first-order logic, or logic that uses quantified variables rather than non-logical objects and sentences that contain variables… *there exists x such that x is Socrates and x is a man*^{1}

… higher-order logic and second-order logic encountered while reading about first-order logic, so i get interested in logic in general, which is defined as: *an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning.*^{2}